An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without any human pilot, crew or passengers on board. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS), which include additionally a ground-based controller and a system of communications with the UAV. The flight of UAVs may operate under remote control by a human operator, as remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA), or with various degrees of autonomy, such as autopilot assistance, up to fully autonomous aircraft that have no provision for human intervention.
UAVs were originally developed through the twentieth century for military missions too “dull, dirty or dangerous for humans, and by the twenty-first they had become essential assets to most militaries. As control technologies improved and costs fell, their use expanded to many non-military applications.